Bai’ Mu’ajjal – Deferred Payment
1. A sale in which the parties agree that the payment of price shall be deferred is called a “Bai’ Mu’ajjal”.
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2. Bai’ Mu’ajjal is valid if the due date of payment is fixed in an unambiguous manner.
3. The due time of payment can be fixed either with reference to a particular date, or by specifying a period, like three months, but it cannot be fixed with reference to a future event the exact date of which is unknown or is uncertain. If the time of payment is unknown or uncertain, the sale is void.
4. If a particular period is fixed for payment, like one month, it will be deemed to commence from the time of delivery, unless the parties have agreed otherwise.
5.. The deferred price may be more than the cash price, but it must be fixed at the time of sale.
6. Once the price is fixed, it cannot be decreased in case of earlier payment, nor can it be increased in case of default.
7. In order to pressurize the buyer to pay the installments promptly, the buyer may be asked to promise that in case of default, he will donate some specified amount for a charitable purpose. In this case the seller may receive such amount from the buyer, not to make it a part of his income, but to use it for a charitable purpose on behalf of the buyer. The detailed discussion on this subject will be found later in this chapter.
8. If the commodity is sold on installments, the seller may put a condition on the buyer that if he fails to pay any installment on its due date, the remaining installments will become due immediately.
9. In order to secure the payment of price, the seller may ask the buyer to furnish a security whether in the form of a mortgage or in the form of a lien or a charge on any of his existing assets.
10. The buyer can also be asked to sign a promissory note or a bill of exchange, but the note or the bill cannot be sold to a third party at a price different from its face value.
1. Murabahah is a particular kind of sale where the seller expressly mentions the cost of the sold commodity he has incurred, and sells it to another person by adding some profit or mark-up thereon.
2. The profit in murabahah can be determined by mutual consent, either in lump sum or through an agreed ratio of profit to be charged over the cost.
3. All the expenses incurred by the seller in acquiring the commodity like freight, custom duty etc. shall be included in the cost price and the mark-up can be applied on the aggregate cost. However, recurring expenses of the business like salaries of the staff, the rent of the premises etc. cannot be included in the cost of an individual transaction. In fact, the profit claimed over the cost takes care of these expenses.
4. Murabahah is valid only where the exact cost of a commodity can be ascertained. If the exact cost cannot be ascertained, the commodity cannot be sold on murabahah basis. In this case the commodity must be sold on musawamah (bargaining) basis i.e. without any reference to the cost or to the ratio of profit / mark-up. The price of the commodity in such cases shall be determined in lump sum by mutual consent.
Example (1) A purchased a pair of shoes for Rs. 100/-. He wants to sell it on murabahah with 10% mark-up. The exact cost is known. The murabahah sale is valid.
Example (2) A purchased a ready - made suit with a pair of shoes in a single transaction, for a lump sum price of Rs. 500/-. A can sell the suit including shoes on murabahah. But he cannot sell the shoes separately on murabahah, because the individual cost of the shoes is unknown. If he wants to sell the shoes separately, he must sell it at a lump sum price without reference to the cost or to the mark-up.
Source: Republished with the kind permission of Sheikh Muhammad Taqi Usmani.
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